CEFoRfL

Common European Framework of Reference for Languages

A1 – BREAKTHROUGH
– A basic ability to communicate and exchange information in a simple way.
– Example: CAN ask simple questions about a menu and understand simple answers.

A2 – Waystage
– An ability to deal with simple, straightforward information and begin to express oneself in familiar contexts.
– Example: CAN take part in a routine conversation on simple predictable topics.

B1 – Threshold
– The ability to express oneself in a limited way in familiar situations and to deal in a general way with nonroutine information.
– Example: CAN ask to open an account at a bank, provided that the procedure is straightforward.

B2 – Vantage
– The capacity to achieve most goals and express oneself on a range of topics.
– Example: CAN show visitors around and give a detailed description of a place.

C1 – Effective Operational Proficiency
– The ability to communicate with the emphasis on how well it is done, in terms of appropriacy, sensitivity and the capacity to deal with unfamiliar topics.
– Example: CAN deal with hostile questioning confidently. CAN get and hold onto his/her turn to speak.

C2 – Mastery
– The capacity to deal with material which is academic or cognitively demanding, and to use language to good effect at a level of performance which may in certain respects be more advanced than that of an average native speaker.
– Example: CAN scan texts for relevant information, and grasp main topic of text, reading almost as quickly as a native speaker.